# HEINE BOREL THEOREM PDF

Students sometimes struggle with the Heine-Borel Theorem; the authors certainly did the first time it was presented to them. This theorem can be hard to. Weierstrass Theorem and Heine-Borel Covering Theorem. Both proofs are two of the most elegant in mathematics. Accumulation Po. Accumulation Points. Heine-Borel Theorem. October 7, Theorem 1. K C Rn is compact if and only if every open covering 1Uαl of K has a finite subcovering. 1Uα1,Uα2,,Uαs l.

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## Heine–Borel theorem

Then S S is compact precisely if it is complete and totally bounded. Then S S is a compact topological space with the induced topology precisely if it is complete and totally bounded with the induced metric.

All Montel spaces have the Heine-Borel property as well. Assume, by way of contradiction, that T 0 is not compact.

### Heine-Borel theorem in nLab

What is the Heine-Borel Theorem saying? Warsaw circleHawaiian earring space. Theorem Let S S be a uniform space. If a set S in R n is bounded, then it can be enclosed within an n -box. Let S be a subset of R n.

We do so by observing that the alternatives lead to contradictions:. We need to show that it is closed and bounded. Many metric spaces fail to have the Heine—Borel property, for instance, the metric space of blrel numbers or indeed any incomplete metric space. Indeed, the intersection of the finite family of sets V U is a neighborhood W of a in R n.

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And that’s how you’d find Heine-Borel stated today. This refers entirely to S S as a metric space in its own right. In this terminlogy, what we need to show is that 1 1 is admissible.

His formulation was restricted to countable covers. For a subset S of Euclidean space R nthe following two statements are equivalent: Then there exists an infinite open cover C of T 0 that does not admit any finite subcover. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Likewise, the sides of T 1 borep be bisected, yielding 2 n sections of T 1at least one of which must require an infinite subcover of C.

Hence what remains is to show that S S is bounded. Pierre CousinLebesgue and Schoenflies generalized it to arbitrary covers.

Let S S be a uniform space.

Extra stuff, structure, properties. Hausdorff spaces are sober. This contradicts the compactness of S.

Proof Since all the closed intervals are homeomorphic it is sufficient to show the statement for [ 01 ] [0,1]. The history of what hein is called the Heine—Borel theorem bodel in the 19th century, with the search for solid foundations of real analysis.

Theorem Let S S be a metric space. It turns out that this is all we need: Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Since S is closed and a subset of the compact set T 0then S is also compact see above.

This site is running on Instiki 0. We could also try to generalise Theorem to subspaces of other metric spaces, but this fails: Central to the theory was the concept of uniform continuity and the theorem stating that every continuous function on a closed interval is uniformly continuous. Kolmogorov spaceHausdorff spaceregular spacenormal space. In fact it holds heibe more generally than for subspaces of a cartesian space:.

Even more trivially, if the real line is not endowed with the usual metric, theogem may fail to have the Heine-Borel property.

What does the Heine-Borel Theorem mean? Views Read Edit View history. This gives a proof by contradiction. The restrictions of these to S S hence form an open cover of the subspace S S. I am confused as to what this theorem is actually saying. This theorem refers only to uniform properties of S Sand in fact a further generalistion is true:.

### Heine-Borel Theorem — from Wolfram MathWorld

Then at least one of the 2 n sections of T 0 must require an infinite subcover of Cotherwise C itself would have a finite subcover, by uniting together the finite covers of the sections. Complete metric spaces may also fail to have the property, for instance, no infinite-dimensional Banach spaces have the Heine—Borel property as metric spaces. If S is compact but not closed, then it has an accumulation point a not in S. Let S S be a metric space. I am working through Hardy’s Course of Pure Mathematics ed.