Published by on December 2, 2021
Categories: Spiritual

This manual is part of the FM series, which describes a contemporary. Opposing Force (OPFOR) that exists for the purpose of training U.S. forces. publications in the former Field Manual [FM] series will be TCs outline an OPFOR than can cover the entire spectrum of military and. First, the armor- and mechanized-based and infantry-based OPFOR modules . Likewise, some types of OPFOR described in FM can.

Author: Meztilmaran Tygomi
Country: Qatar
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Software
Published (Last): 20 November 2017
Pages: 254
PDF File Size: 15.29 Mb
ePub File Size: 14.3 Mb
ISBN: 807-6-17890-318-3
Downloads: 83988
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Vurisar

Medium and large infantry-based forces may also possess significant armor- and mechanized-based formations. It probably has a nuclear capability. Air defense assets generally move dispersed throughout the march formation, but with a concentration at the head of march columns. The high-technology end of the armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR approaches the level termed complex, adaptive forces. The formal name of this branch of the armed forces, which corresponds to the U.

Traffic control and constant cover against air attack are essential, especially at obstacle crossings and chokepoints and in assembly areas. They opor be part of or sponsored by a large-scale drug or criminal organization, or they may have the backing of a wealthy outside power.

To solve the particularly difficult problems of fuel supply, it is necessary to establish depots beforehand to supply each daily march stage.

Small-to-medium tm and mechanized-based forces cover a wide range of technology and capability, from developing states through small, professional armies. The problem is most acute in the case of tanks and, to a lesser extent, self-propelled artillery and infantry combat vehicles.

Highest priority for protection goes to the first echelon, the SSM brigade and its missile technical battalion, and army, corps, and division CPs. They prefer hit-and-run raids, ambushes, terror tactics, or harassment.

FM Armor- And Mechanized-Based Opposing Force Operational Art – Inroduction

The main purpose for moving in columns at this point is administrative convenience. Thus, with only five routes available, an army can move with only two divisions in its first echelon. Infantry-based forces are common throughout the developing world.

Both the level of destruction opfro the delay and disruption that such attacks would cause are undesirable. They are light not out of austerity but for practical reasons, because the lightness of the equipment enhances mobility.

Whenever possible, the main CP moves on a route separate from the forward CP, while the forward CP exercises control from its position in the next daily rest area.


Activities supporting deception, such as radar corner reflectors, deception jammers, and dummy radio nets also contribute to the ESO counterreconnaissance effort. As seen in Figurea division on two routes is about km deep exclusive of march security elements. As the Army moves into the twenty-first century, it is no longer possible to identify one or two nations or forces as the potential adversaries against which it needs to train on a regular basis.

It opor traffic control along march routes, in assembly areas, in troop disposition and combat areas, and at chokepoints. Units continuously dedicate time for the effective use of cover, opflr, and camouflage during movement ofor at halts. The armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR can conduct a strategic operation involving the combined forces in a theater. In this case, the State’s military structure opofr consists primarily of the Ground Forces. Even with a small infantry-based force, however, the State might mobilize and deploy one army- or corps-size force capable of conducting large-scale operations against a neighboring country whose armed forces are also infantry-based.

The successful execution of a march depends on several support measures. Once the operation has begun, even second-echelon and reserve forces generally remain on the move, rather than occupying prepared assembly areas.

When radio communications are necessary, preferred o;for are those providing line-of-sight and capable of transmitting at f low power. The attacker may find gaps or weak spots in the defender’s combat formation, and use preemptive attack to avoid the need to expend precious time and resources for a penetrating operation. This means that a unit on the march must always have at least one CP deployed and in control.

Sometimes certain threat information may not be available at any fmm of classification. Such armies normally mount at least 40 percent of their ground forces in armored vehicles. The other disadvantage of rail movement is that it is very vulnerable to air or precision weapon interdiction. There can, of course be many variations on this theme. There may opforr occasions where OPFORs encountered in stability and support operations include a sophisticated military organization with heavier weapons.

File:FM 7-100.1 – OPFOR, Opposing Force Operations (December 2004).pdf

Unless the State is landlocked, it can have a blue-water navy and naval infantry marines. The key technologies that can allow this are self-propelled artillery and offensive chemical and biological warfare. In addition, the OPFOR undertakes a number of operational security measures to reduce the amount of information the enemy may gather, such as Another ofor is to reduce or negate the enemy’s ability to disrupt or delay the movement.


First, the armor- and mechanized-based and infantry-based OPFOR modules are not simply unclassified handbooks on the armed forces of a particular nation. Tracked vehicles, and heavy equipment such as SSM launchers, usually move on one route preferably pavedwhile wheeled vehicles move on another route possibly an unimproved dirt road. Thus, the length of the army’s first-echelon columns, including forward-deployed combat and logistic support elements, is opfro km.

They may still be small and lightly armed but could have sophisticated, state-of-the-art light weapons.

Thus, the differences between the infantry-based and armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR modules are largely scenario-dependent. Beginning prior to o;for initiation of hostilities, the OPFOR oppfor conducts offensive and defensive IW activities throughout the duration of a march.

Sometimes trainers may find it necessary to draw some elements from both organization guides in order to constitute the appropriate OPFOR order of battle. The enemy may detect movement in the operational and strategic depth of the OPFOR, given the quality and variety of sensors available to him.

The latter is preferable, since it is desirable to have a strong first echelon in going over to the attack. Enter Your Email Address. The OPFOR typically deploys march security elements, even in the depth of friendly territory, since diversionary, airborne, and heliborne threats are always present. This dispersion reduces vulnerability to enemy attack and also increases the area covered by responsive fire support.

If one side opts for the strategic defensive and wins the race, it can face the enemy with a dense defense in prepared positions, backed by strong operational reserves. Such a spacing would allow opflr any necessary maneuver or dispersion, yet ensures timely commitment. A separate field manual provides characteristics of worldwide military equipment available to the capabilities-based OPFOR organizations in the three modules. While the OPFOR continues the attempt to mislead the enemy as to its intentions, as commitment approaches the emphasis shifts towards force protection and increased use of cover, concealment, and camouflage to deceive him.

FM provides the trainer with a military doctrine and operational art for the armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR.